Child Rape Should Be Federal Offense

Sexually Abused child.

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          Since breaking news of the Sandusky child sex abuse scandal rocked Penn State, victims have begun emerging out of the woodwork. However, not all of these victims belong to the Penn State Perv, but came forward because of. Recent allegations against Bernie Fine (Syracuse Assistant Basketball Coach) are said to be a direct result of the Sandusky case. As more victims find the courage to come forward, more high-profile cases form. This same domino effect happened not long ago in the Catholic Church, crumbling the very foundation of members’ faith. The Boy Scouts of America suffered the same fate, as lawsuits were filed in Oregon; what’s more, teachers have been arrested for molesting students. The plethora of perverts in this country (739,853 registered, according to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children) is a strong testament that we need strict deterrents for such a heinous act –like Federal Life charges with no statute of limitation!

These sexual predators take the lives of victims, not by death of body, but death of soul.  “About 80% of 21 year olds that were abused as children met criteria for at least one psychological disorder” (, 2011). Many victims self-medicate with drugs and alcohol to reduce shame, guilt, and fear. “As many as two-thirds of the people in treatment for drug abuse reported being abused or neglected as children” (, 2011); what’s more, many of these addicts never achieve long-term sobriety.

       Addiction, coupled with psychological issues often result in an arrest of some type for the victim. “ Children who experience child abuse & neglect are 59% more likely to be arrested as a juvenile, 28% more likely to be arrested as an adult, and 30% more likely to commit violent crime” (, 2011).  Some victims victimize their own children, either physically, sexually, or mentally; in turn, those children grow to do the same. “About 30% of abused and neglected children will later abuse their own children, continuing the horrible cycle of abuse” (, 2011). Though the percentages are variables, the impact on victim and society are not, making another strong argument for Federal law and penalties.

          What is really disturbing about sexual abuse victimization is, most children are molested by someone they know and trust, such as a family member, sports coach, a friends family member, neighbor, priest, youth enrichment program leader, and yes –even a teacher. “More than 90% of juvenile sexual abuse victims know their perpetrator in some way” (, 2011). More often than not, a family friend is the pervert; a parent’s significant other, a babysitter, a drinking buddy, and even a church member. It’s unfortunate, but if you have children, you MUST be suspicious of every person in you and your children’s lives. Predators specifically search for troubled children who need attention and mentorship; in addition, financially deprived families are a target as well. However, don’t be a fool, a pervert will not discriminate class, color, or financial status, and they just want a child, any child –your child!

          So, what can parents do to keep children safe? Educate, educate, and educate! Educate children about signs, signals, tone, looks, touch, sex, verbal and non-verbal communication, offender behaviors and patterns, and, why, when, and who should touch their private parts. Teach courage and the importance of telling an adult if they are fondled, or forced into sexual behavior; what’s more, teach that NOT telling puts others at risk and hinders justice. Additionally, petition the government to make child sexual assault a Federal crime to carry a minimum of life –no second chances! An offender’s second chance could cost your charge their innocence; there is no second chance for that.

          In conclusion, Americans must not continue to coddle sex offenders as if they have rights. These perverts lost their rights the minute their IQ failed to exceed past their belt buckle and they raped a child! Maybe if these low-moral pigs had to fear life in Federal prison, and “Bubba” in general population fulfilling HIS sexual desires, then maybe fewer children would be victimized. Furthermore, for those who believe rehabilitation is possible, think of this: If you are heterosexual, could any amount of counseling turn you gay? If you are homosexual, could any amount of counseling turn you straight? In either case, would a short stay in jail change your mind? Of course not, we want what satisfies us, and we have sex with WHO satisfies us. Therefore, you will not change the perverted action of those who desire children. The rape of a child affects every state, community, and taxpayer in this nation and should be considered a federal offense that carries a minimum life sentence with no statute of limitation –period!





References (2011, November 28). National child abuse statistics:

       Child abuse in America. wCFQen7QodHElZsA


Best Little Diner in Tennessee!

            If you are traveling through Pulaski
Tennessee, a must stop eatery called “The Rusty Spur Diner” located on highway 31 is
the perfect place to fill your belly. Owners Cathy and James Vandiver partnered
with parents Dennis and Gloria Hebir are country culinary geniuses; serving up
the tastiest chicken, pork, steaks, and burgers in the South. This diner is
famous for the hottest chicken wings in the country; so hot that a pair of
gloves and goggles is required to even pick them up. Pictures pinned on the
wall depict the few who have succeeded and the many who have failed to eat
these fiery spiced wings. Additionally, James Vandiver cooks 

one mean, tender, tasty, steak; a
person could not find a high-dollar steak house to fix one better, or a cozier
place to eat it.

            One local man Joseph Boshers, “still hurting the next morning”
(according to a post on the diner’s Facebook page) had this to say about the
They were hotter
than hell!” 

the owners, this is a great compliment that puts a smile on their face. You can
read more comments by diners’ (local and visitors’) on their Facebook page,!/pages/The-Rusty-Spur-Diner/110396472310710
and see more pictures of the Gunslinger Challenge winners and gave-it-a-try failures.
No matter where in the U.S you reside, a visit to The Rusty Spur Diner is
worth the trip! I drive from Nashville just to get a taste of the wonderful
food served up by this family owned/run diner; it is worth the trip as well as
the price. I give The Rusty Spur an A+ in service, culinary expertise, and the
comfortable country setting!


Do not rape children

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The debate on why men rape women has been a hot topic
among scientists and psychologists for years, only to find that it is still
without a solid annalistic explanation, only theory; though some psychologists
and scientists believe that their theory is the correct reasoning. The opinion
varies depending which side of the spectrum it is looked at. One thing that is
certain is “in the United States, a woman is sexually assaulted or raped every
six minutes…85% of victims know their attacker and 84% of rapes will go
unreported” (Supriya, 2011). This is a statistic that cannot be ignored nor be
left unsearched for practical answers and solutions.

Scientists Thornhill and Palmer have stirred-up
controversy with their theory about why men rape women. “Thornhill and Palmer
argue that rape evolved as an “alternative mating strategy”, and they contend
that it is a “natural, biological phenomenon and a product of our evolutionary
heritage” (Ochert, 2000). The theories are many, to the point of confusion
at times. Thornhill’s theory derived from his studies on “the mating habits of
the scorpion fly”, which have a “notal organ” to enable it to hold down and
force the female to concede to mating –a sort of “specialized rape tool”
(Ochert, 2000). This theory stirred-up so much controversy that scheduled
lectures were canceled; proving that Thornhill and Palmer’s theory is not a
welcome one.

In an article by Judith Schulvitz, Evolutionary
Psychology Teaches Rape 101, Schulvitz criticizes Thornhill and Palmer for
their evolutionary determinist theory on the issue of why men rape women.
Schulvitz first states the “beef” with the evolutionary theory in general,

“Evolutionary psychology is not very good on the aspect
of the human psyche she’s personally interested in, which is how humans are
different from animals. Ev psych insists, rightly, that we not ignore our
similarities to the higher –and lower-order creatures, but its weak on
subjectivity, self-awareness, self-consciences, whatever you want to call it
–on how we explain our tangled mass of hormonal impulses to ourselves. And yet
this ability to reflect on ourselves underlies art, architecture, poetry,
government, journalism, and all other forms of communication that animals don’t
and can’t have” (Shulevitz, 2000).

Shulevitz however, speaks more candidly about Thornhill
and Palmer’s purposed course to teach young men and young women about rape,

“Completion of such a course might be required say,
before a young man is granted a driver’s license. The program might start by
inducing the young men to acknowledge the power of their sexual impulses, and
then explaining why human males have evolved in that way. The young men should
learn that past Darwinian selection is the reason that a man can get an
erection just by looking at the photo of a naked woman, why he may be tempted
to demand sex even if he knows that his date truly doesn’t want it, and why he
might mistake a woman’s friendly comment or tight blouse as an invitation to
sex. Most of all, the program should stress that a man’s evolved sexual desires
offer him no excuse whatsoever for raping a woman, and if he understands and
resists those desires, he may be able to prevent their manifestation in sexual
coercive behavior” (Shulevitz, 2000).

Of course Thornhill and Palmer cannot leave out the young
woman in their course of correction; this is what they purposed that the young
women be taught in this so-called course:

“Young women should be informed that, during the
evolution of human sexuality, the existence of female choice has favored men
who are quickly aroused by signals of a female’s willingness to grant sexual
access. Furthermore, woman need to realize that, because selection favored
males who had many mates, men tend to read signals of acceptance into a woman’s
actions even when no such signals are intended. In spite of protestations to
the contrary, women should be advised that the way they dress can put them at
risk” (Shulevitz, 2000).

Essentially, Thornhill and Palmer are suggesting the
government admits that men are “naturally born rapists” and that a woman should
be mindful of how they act and dress. Shulevitz’s throws in a dig suggesting
that lawyers everywhere are concocting their defenses at this very moment,
saying, “Culturalbox can see the criminal lawyers composing their
genetic-determinist defenses already: Why,
even the state said he couldn’t help himself” (Shulevitz, 2000)! Needless to
say, Shulevitz is not a big fan of the Thornhill-Palmer theory; finishing her
article with this statement of pure truth:

“If we teach our
children to see themselves strictly as beasts, they’re bound to act like them”
(Shulevitz, 2000).

Criticism also comes from Time magazine’s essayist Barbra
Ehreneich in the form of a retort to The Sciences article; “Ehreneich expresses
doubts that rape would offer much of a selective advantage: “The rapist
generally operates on a hit-and-run basis –which may be all right for stocking
sperm banks, but not as effective if the goal is to produce offspring who
will survive in a challenging environment…the children of guys who raped and
ran must have been a scrawny lot and doomed to end up on some leopard’s lunch
menu” (Ochert, 2000). Statistically, woman who become impregnated by their
attacker does not have the child, or if she does it is put up for adoption,
putting holes in Thornhill and Palmer’s theory once again.

Evolutionary biologist Jerry Coyne of the University of
Chicago has called the book “the worst efflorescence of evolutionary psychology
that I have ever seen”, claiming that it is “irresponsible, tendentious and the
science is sloppy”…”Rape, he says, is pathological, not natural” (Ochert, 2000).
As for the way women dress and act being an enticement for rape, Coyne suggests
that “there is no such evidence that scanty dress induces rape” (Ochert, 2000).
Moreover, if that statement is even suggested in a room full of people, the
outrage would be obvious. “As for Thornhill and Palmer’s recommendation that
young men be educated about the evolutionary basis of rape, Mary Koss,
professor of public health at the University of Arizona and an authority on
rape, says: “(They) have obviously never stood up before a group and given a
rape-prevention talk…if you even simply imply to a male audience that all men
are potential rapists, They go berserk” (Ochert, 2000)! Koss hits the nail on
the head with that statement; telling any man he is a potential rapist is not
the best of ideals –besides, this may give them the impression that it is in their
nature to rape so why fight it.

Labeling a person of any stature can cause the expected
action; moreover, psychologists have proven that labeling a person can cause long
lasting effects –and essentially cause the action by default. Similarly,
telling a woman that the way they dress and act is an invitation to rape,
induces them to believe if raped –it is their fault for wearing that sundress
or speaking politely to a stranger; which is far from the truth –no means no,
period! To a rape victim, annalistic theories about why they were raped, and
understanding the mind of the swine that did it, are no benefit to them. The
life of a rape victim is never the same and neither are the loved ones around
them: Where is the evolutionary determinist theory about victims of these
pathological demons –and is that theory as absurd as Thornhill and Palmer’s?

Many psychologists and scientists believe that men rape
women primarily because an aggressive need to control and dominate the victim
instead of to achieve sexual fulfillment, considering “rape as an act of
violence rather than principally a sexual encounter” (Supriya, 2011). With the
many theories floating about it is complicated to discern between
them all: procreation, frustration, control, sexual satisfaction, biological
and evolutionary reasoning, all make up a comprehensive confusing conundrum for
the victim, scientists, and psychologists alike. In the end, does it really
matter the reason? Can rape be eradicated? Maybe, if we are steadfast in
researching the actions and reasoning behind the rapists thought process when
committing the act of rape –this may give more insight into the underlying
thought process before and when the crime is committed –which gives a better
ground to start analysis and solutions.

Now that we have covered the theories derived from
others, let us look closer into some of the psychological disorders that may
put a person at greater risk for becoming a rapist or rape victim:
Schizophrenia is a possible mental impairment that could put a person at risk
to be both a rapist and a victim. The definition of Schizophrenia according to
David G. Myers “Psychology” ninth edition is, “a group of severe disorders
characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions,
and inappropriate emotions and actions” (Myers, 2010). People with this particular
illness may be particularly vulnerable to be raped if female –and to rape if
male (though the opposite can occur, with humanity anything is possible). The
daunting question is; would the rapist in this case be culpable for this action
given the circumstances? The jury is still out on that issue –but in most
cases, probably not. The rapist must have a full understanding that rape is
wrong and the consequence for doing so is prison.

Antisocial personality disorder is another high-risk
mental illness, mainly for becoming an offender instead of a victim. Antisocial
personality disorder is defined by Myers as “a personality disorder in which
the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrong doing, even
toward friends and family members…may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever
con artist” Myers, 2010). This particular impairment makes a person express
little to no remorse for their actions of violating another; not to say that
the person does not understand between right and wrong –they just do not care.
“Henry Lee Lucas confessed that during his 32 years of crime, he had bludgeoned,
suffocated, stabbed, shot, or mutilated some 360 women, men, and children –the
first (a woman) at the age 13” (Myers, 2010). The crimes committed among these
mentally ill inmates are staggering at best; this is why finding these
impairments at an early age is essential, therfore, medication and therapy can be
achieved before manifestation of criminal behavior.

In conclusion, there are many theories on why men
rape women; while none of them are completely right -none are completely wrong
either. It is obvious that more studies and research must be done and a
solution to this violence found. Moreover, all women must be mindful when out,
or even to who they speak too; a man (according to evolutionary theory) may
take it as an invitation to rape. Finally, the human mind is a complex
instrument, which will never be completely figured out or analyzed, however, we can
get a better understanding if steadfast in our search for answers and solutions.


Myers, David G. (2010).
Psychology Ninth Edition. Worth Publishers. New York, New York.

ISBN- 13:978-1-4292-1597-8.

Ochert, Ayala. (2000,
February 4). Why men want to rape. Times Higher Education.

Shulevitz, Judith.
(2000, January 13). Evolutionary psychology teaches rape 101. Slate magazine

Supriya, Sharron.
(2011, June 2). Why men rape. One India.


A thoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve rep...

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(Written for a communications class received an A; please leave your comments)

Every relationship has
its communication challenges, however, if a person is ill and there is a
communication problem between the Doctor and Patient –it can be deadly. Patients
and physicians have an obligation to be clear and precise in their communication
to each other, if one or the other fails in their obligation the results can
cause harm or even death. In September of 2005, I had to have a simple surgical
procedure. When the hospital called the day before to give instructions, I asked
them if I should take my daily medications -or wait until after; the nurse
informed me to go ahead and take all medicines as scheduled (she never ask what
kind it was). This was the start of the communication plight between the staff
and me.

Not thinking that most of
the medications were narcotics, I took them all as normal. By the time that I
had reached the hospital in Oklahoma City, it was time to take my second dose of
the day; therefore, once again, I took them as normal. Now laying in the
hospital bed waiting for the anesthesiologist, I was feeling no pain. About
thirty minutes later the nurse came in and administered the sedation –that was
the last thing that I remember, until I awoke in intensive care nine days later.
After coming to, the nurse told me that I had passed away three times –the last
being for over a minute and a half.

The next day the staff
moved me to a regular floor where I stayed another nine days. The doctor that
had done the procedure came into my hospital room and informed me that if I did
not quit taking all those pills it would kill me (at that time I was on 30
different medicines), however, after three years of being on them I was an
addict. For the next week they rehabbed me and got the drugs out of my system;
it was the first time that I had thought clearly in three years. The doctor
stated that he would not put me back on any narcotics –that if I felt pain then
I knew I was alive; at that sober moment, I agreed with him. It seemed that now,
he and I were communicating competently, clearly, with perfect

However, the morning that
I checked out of the hospital (21 days after a same day surgery) the nurse
handed me thirteen new prescriptions –all narcotics; the same medicines I had
just overdosed on. I did not understand why he would do that after what just
occurred. I asked the nurse if he realized that he said he was NOT going to give
me any medicines; she stated that he wrote them and told her to give them to me.
As an addict, the thought never crossed my mind to tell her to tell him that I
would NOT take them –I went straight to the pharmacy and filled them; eating two
of each to make up for lost time. By the time that I reached Stonewall,
Oklahoma, I was high on pills again –remaining hooked for another two years.

I often ponder on this
incident, wondering how it could have been handled better –on both sides of the
spectrum; what we could have done differently –I wondered. As for my part of the
communication issue: I should have asked the nurse that told me to take the
regular medications –if that included the narcotics, since they would be putting
me to sleep; instead, I assumed that it meant take all the daily medications.
I have since learned to not assume anything, and that the only stupid question
is –the one unasked! Not communicating competently almost cost me my

Similarly, the nurse
should have asked exactly what kinds of medications that I was taking –but
again, I assumed she knew. It is the hospital staffs’ job to be thorough when
giving instructions and asking pertainate questions from the patient before any
procedure. Moreover, the nurse that administered the sedative should have asked
more questions before putting the medication in my IV –it was obvious that I was
high on something. Furthermore, a detailed list of my medications and allergies
should have been readily available to the hospital staff before surgery was
scheduled, and they should have went over that list with me on the phone when
setting the appointment time (a miss-communication between the doctor and staff
members). This is a policy that should be implemented in every hospital and
doctor’s office across the country –it could save lives.

As far as the doctor is
concerned and his lack of communication skills with staff (both the doctor at
the hospital and my primary physician), should have made it clear that narcotics
should not be taken before this procedure. Additionally, the physicians’ should
have told me as the patient, that I should not take narcotics or sedatives
before any procedure that requires sedation of any type. There were plenty of
opportunities to inform me of what I should or should not do before the medical
procedure; moreover, if it happened in my case, who’s to say that it hasn’t
happened to others –or will in the future.

In conclusion, in a
relationship all parties involved must communicate clearly, competently, and
mindfully. Because, in certain circumstances a breakdown in communication can
cost a life, a love, or even a family member –lost to a complete
misunderstanding. We must all consider the effect that our words and sentences
have on others and the way that they communicate. Finally, simply because one
party walks away satisfied with the conversation does not mean that it was a
competent, clear exchange.

Credit Card Crisis: The Consumer Prospective

Credit cards

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Credit Card Crisis: The Consumer Prospective
Credit card debt has been a huge problem in America for many years, with current years being the worst in history. Americans’ are now feeling the pain of mounting bills, higher interest rates, growing fees, and less money to pay them, while credit card companies are earning record profits. The problem has gotten so out of control, that in 2009 President Obama passed a bill in hopes of making credit card companies accountable and consumers happy. “On May 22, President Barack Obama signed the Credit Card Accountability, Responsibility and Disclosure, or Credit Card, Act of 2009 into law” (McFadden, 2009). Some of the laws began taking effect in August of 2009, while others did not become effective until February. Though well intended, this law has made little difference in a plight that seems unfixable.
This new consumer protection bill dictates at least eight major codes credit card companies must follow, or face penalties. In an article by Leslie McFadden, she breaks down these regulations for better understanding:
 “Retroactive rate increases: Issuers can’t raise rates on an existing balance unless a promotional rate expired, the variable indexed rate increased or you paid late by 60 days or more. No longer will they be able to punish barrows for late payments on unrelated accounts under the practice of universal default or due to “anytime’ any “reason” clauses” (McFadden, 2009).
 More advanced notice of rate hikes: Consumers get 45 days’ notice before key contract changes take effect, including rate increases” (McFadden, 2009).
Fee restrictions: Cardholders will not face overlimit fees unless they elect to allow the creditor to approve overlimit transactions. Issuers can’t charge more than one overlimit fee per billing cycle” (McFadden, 2009).
 “Restricts card issuance to students: Consumers under age 21 who can’t prove an independent means of income or provide the signature of a co-signer aged 21 or older won’t get approved for credit cards” (McFadden, 2009).
 “Ends double-cycle billing: The new law bans double-cycle billing, the practice of basing finance charges on the current and previous balance” (McFadden, 2009).
 “Fairer payment allocation: A close look at your card agreement will likely reveal a clause that payments will be applied to lower-rate balances first. Not so anymore. The Credit Card Act requires above-the-minimum payments to be applied first to the credit card balance with the highest interest rate” (McFadden, 2009).
 “More Time To Pay: Card companies must send statements 21 days before a payment is due” (McFadden, 2009).
 “Gift card protections: The legislation includes protections for gift cardholders. The new law prohibits gift cards from expiring for at least five years. Issuer cannot access inactivity fees unless the card has gone unused for 12 months” (McFadden, 2009).
While these new laws and restrictions are helpful in protecting us consumers, there are steps that we must take to protect ourselves against high credit card debt. The government cannot protect us from bad spending habits and us; we must monitor and control these personality challenges on our own. If you cannot afford to pay for bills already, getting a credit card will not make this better- no matter how much we lie to ourselves. Additionally, ladies, if you want a new dress, or a new pair of shoes, do not buy them unless you can pay it off when the bill arrives. The key thing for cardholders’ to remember is, when buying an item on credit, we pay twice what the item would cost if paid with cash.
In addition to controlling spending habits and paying off purchases right away to prevent paying interest, cardholders must also read the companies “Terms and Agreements” with due vigilance. Skipping over the fine print can result in consequences and terms that the cardholder did not expect: these contracts (no matter how ridiculous), are indeed binding, while being costly to break. If something sounds too good to be true, it usually is. And paying off a credit card with another credit card will always end in disaster- advertisements lie. It is the consumer’s obligation to get out the magnifying glass and read the fine print, if we fail- we pay. Reading a contract thoroughly is always the responsibility of the purchaser, if it is not completely understood; wait to sign it until you speak with an attorney.
Although these precautions are great for us as consumers’ because we save money, it is harmful to the credit card companies and their profits. When we pay our credit card bills on time, or spend less, credit card companies make less money. When consumers find ways to stop the unfair practices of these companies, the companies find more ways to trick us into paying more fees, and higher interest rates, with shady advertising practices. And, while some of the new regulations help, the credit card companies find ways to retrieve the losses in other areas. The conflict between company and consumer will never be completely fixed, but there are ways that we can protect ourselves from unfair practices from unethical companies. There are three reasons why this conflict will always exist: money, money, and, wait for it…money. The credit card companies are in the business to make money, if profits fail in one area, it will be made up in other areas- this is a fact.
The credit card companies make the largest portion of their profits off those who do not pay their bill on time, and those who only pay the minimum balance. Deadbeat is a term usually associated with those who do not pay their bills on time, but, in the world of credit card companies, a deadbeat is defined as one who pays off their purchases on time. A person would never imagine that paying on time is a bad thing. In the end, our financial security is up to us, if we as consumers do not protect ourselves and are not vigilant about our financial future, no one is to blame except ourselves.
However, the issue as a whole is a collective fault, the consumer, the credit card companies, and the government. Consumers neglect their credit and finances, spending money they do not have, the credit card companies drain consumers with interest, fees and enabling the credit challenged, and finally, the government needs to set the example and penalize the credit card companies for wrongful behavior. Will this issue ever be fixed? No. Just as with any other issue, unless all parties are in agreement on the solution, no solution will be satisfactory. It seems that no matter which side does what, the other is not happy- there are no victors’. The only thing consumers can do is control spending, be card smart, read carefully, and do not use credit cards for non-emergency purchases or transferring balances.
In conclusion, the issues of America, whether credit card or otherwise, is a collective problem, and moreover, a collective solution. What one of us does effects the other, no matter how small the action; we must remember this when making choices, these choices will affect others. We consumers must be aware of our own financial matters and do not spend money we do not have. In business, each party has its own responsibility and must take the responsibility very seriously. Finally, all of us must work as a collective to combat unethical behavior on each other’s part, and keep the American economy from ruin. If America fails, it is a collective effort.

McFadden, Leslie. (2009, August 20). 8 Major benefits of new credit card law.…


The Seal of Washington, Washington's state seal.

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Davey v. Locke

            This case is interesting to say the
least, two litigants citing constitutional rights, one cites separation of
church and state, the other cites freedom of religion. The state of Washington
denies Joshua Davey’s right to freedom of religious expression, claiming that Davey
cannot use the Washington Promise Scholarship funds to major in theology. Davey
was awarded the scholarship based on his performance in high school and on the
SAT, as was the other recipients. The case was brought before the U.S. 9th
Circuit Court.

Using the criteria in terms of
obligation, moral ideals, and consequences to judge the actions of Washington
State, Washington State is mistaken in their conviction. The U.S. 9th
Circuit Court agrees citing “Rule of Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v.
City of Hialeah, 508 U.S. 520, 113 S. Ct.2217, 124 L. Ed. 2d 593 (1993), as
well as the rule of McDaniel v. Paty, 435 U.S. 618, 90 S. Ct. 1322, 55 L. Ed.
2d 593 (1978), that a state offering a benefit may not impose disability on the
basis of religious status” (Davey v. Locke, 2011). Washington State has an
obligation to treat all scholarship recipients equally, regardless of religious
preference, race, color, creed, or sexual orientation; they did not hold to
their obligation of fairness.

Even the moral ideal of Washington’s
actions toward Davey is skewed at best. What does it matter what this young man
wants to major in, as long as he is a productive member of society? It would be
more beneficial to the State of Washington and its communities if Davey became
a graduate of any major, rather than the statistical ramifications of one more
citizen being uneducated. Statistics have shown a strong connection between
uneducated young men and gangs and drugs; it has been proven that young
uneducated men end up in gangs, jail, drugs, and eventually prison. The idea
that the State of Washington would take such a small amount of money awarded to
an ambition young American that wants to do right by his family, self, and
community is baffling- a perfect example of what is going wrong in this

However, the American Justice system
imposed consequences against the State of Washington for its unfair practices.
The 9th Circuit Court ruled that Washington State must return the
money to Davey, stating that “We believe that Washington’s interest in this
case is less than compelling…the Promise Scholarship is a secular program that
rewards superior achievement by high school students who meet objective
criteria…scholarship funds would not even go indirectly to sectarian schools or
for non-secular study unless an individual recipient were to make the personal
choice to major in a secular study unless an individual recipient were to make
the personal choice to major in a subject taught from a religious perspective,
and then only to the extent that the proceeds are used for tuition and are
somehow allocable to the religious major” (Davey v. Locke, 2011).

Obviously aggravated with the cases
undertones, the judges go on to suggest, “In these circumstances it is difficult
to see how any reasonable observer could believe that the state was applying
state funds to religious instruction or to support any religious establishment
by allowing an otherwise qualified recipient his scholarship” (Davey v. Locke,
2011). Similarly this is my perspective; Washington’s thinking was ignorant at
best. Moreover, the consequences did not end at Washington’s justice; it
carried on to the community when Washington pulled the program in 2006.
Washington decided if they could not control who is considered worthy of the
scholarship and who is not, then there would be no more scholarship- and those
consequences will last a lifetime.


Davey v. Locke. (2011,May 26). Davey v. Locke- 9th Circuit Court. Find Law.

Bigfoot: Fact or Fiction?

Frame 352 from the film, alleged to depict a f...

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Bigfoot: Fact or Fiction?

Imagine if you will:

It is just another day delivering packages to the locals,
driving down a long country road going from drop off to drop off. The next
stop, a routine house on the route, seemed to be the normal stop and drop; then
something frightens you to the point of flight. Fight never thinking of
entering the thought process. This sounds as if I am describing a scene from a
horror flick; on the contrary, this indeed happened to Jan Thompson, a delivery
person from Ballard County, Kentucky. In “Forest
, Jan tells her terrifying tell of seeing what she describes as a
8 foot, 500 to 600lb, thick furry shadow in the woods behind the house she was
delivering to that day. In this article, Jan states what she saw through her

sound came from the thick group of trees and echoed over the fields in thick
vibrations. It was a mixture of a deep lion’s growl that heightened into a
scream containing the same low, deep, load rhythm. I stood stunned, half scared
and half curious. From the area of the trees where the sound traveled from was
the figure of something very tall, very large in width and very strong, as some
of the smaller pine trees about 10 to 15 feet in height were being shaken back
and forth vigorously and violently. The figure itself was not totally visible
but hidden mostly behind the shadows of the larger trees behind and around it.
It was dark in color, guessing dark brown or black, with a thick furry outline.
It looked to have stood over 8 feet in height. It began moving along the edge
of the trees towards the house, just keeping inside the safety of the shadows”
(Thompson, 2011).

is sure that what she saw was a ‘yeti’ or ‘bigfoot’. Could it have been the
legendary creature she saw in the shadows? I suppose anything is possible. I
try to keep an open mind, just in case. Whether anyone believes Jan or not,
this creäture was indeed very real to her. Thirty years old and seven months
pregnant, her hormones and emotions must have gone haywire. That being said,
there also may be another explanation for Jan’s sighting. As I mentioned, Jan
was seven months pregnant, she also drives a delivery truck dropping packages;
it may be that she did not sleep well the night before, or even a night or two.
It has been suggested that as many as 75% of pregnant women suffer from
insomnia, and thus sleep deprivation sometimes can induce hallucinations
(Roberts, 2011).

coffee and caffeine, if ingested several times a day, added with sleep
deprivation, could make a person at higher risk for ‘seeing’ things others do
not; this may explain why many hunters’ report seeing Bigfoot. Many women have
reported having episodes of hallucinations, which could also be caused from a
hormone imbalance, caffeine, and insomnia. Furthermore, sometimes woman, while
pregnant, develop diabetes; which can also cause a person to hallucinate.
Whichever the case, reasonable doubt that she actually seen Bigfoot can be
established (Roberts, 2011)

a side note:

The reason that I chose this story is because
I lived in Ballard County, Kentucky, in the exact area she speaks of. I
remember the town folk scaring the pee out of their charges with the Bigfoot
story to keep their behinds out of the woods and in toe. I never believed it
myself; an avid camper, I had camped at Land Between the Lakes and other areas
alone for years, never did see Bigfoot or any other creatures. Additionally, I
hunted the woods of Kentucky for many a year, and again, I seen no Yeti. I will
not go as far as to say that they do not, or did not ever exist, but, I will
say that in each case that I have researched, other explanations exists, and
therefore, cannot be dismissed.


Roberts, T. (2011, May
4). Treating insomnia during pregnancy.

Thompson, J. (2011, May
4). Forest creature. Jan’s Tales. Guardian Tales.